Depression Commowork Farm by YogaClicks


About

Whether you’re experiencing a low mood, or have been diagnosed with clinical depression, clinical studies point towards yoga, meditation, pranayama and mindfulness as useful treatments for depression.

Stretching out your muscles can help relieve tension and balance your mood, and building physical strength can also build confidence in your ability to deal with whatever the world may throw at you. Backbends and other dynamic postures that open the heart have been found to be particularly useful.

If you go to a class, there’s also the simple fact of being around other people, which can be a real tonic when you’re lonely.

Then, there’s the deeper stuff – the training of the mind. Mindfulness and meditation can be effective ways to focus the mind on the present, and break the cycle of depressing thoughts concerning a past we can’t change and a future we can’t know.


What the clinical studies say

Yoga
  • Alleviates anger
  • Alleviates depression
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces neurotic symptoms
Mindfulness
  • Improves mood
  • MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressant treatment are both associated with enduring positive outcomes in terms of quality of life.
  • MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressant treatment are both associated with enduring positive outcomes in terms of relapse or recurrence
  • MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressant treatment are both associated with enduring positive outcomes in terms of residual depressive symptoms
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces risk of recurrence

The clinical studies

The Effect of Mindfulness- Based Therapy on Anxiety and Depression: A Meta Analytic Review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Although mindfulness-based therapy has become a popular treatment, little is known about its efficacy. Therefore, our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of this popular intervention for anxiety and mood symptoms in clinical samples.

Method:

We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. Our meta-analysis was based on 39 studies totaling 1,140 participants receiving mindfulness-based therapy for a range of conditions, including cancer, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and other psychiatric or medical conditions.

Results:

Effect size estimates suggest that mindfulness-based therapy was moderately effective for improving anxiety (Hedges' g 0.63) and mood symptoms (Hedges' g 0.59) from pre- to post treatment in the overall sample. In patients with anxiety and mood disorders, this intervention was associated with effect sizes (Hedges' g) of 0.97 and 0.95 for improving anxiety and mood symptoms, respectively.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that mindfulness based therapy is a promising intervention for treating anxiety and mood problems in clinical populations.
Citations

920
Authors

Stefan G. Hoffman | Alice T. Sawyer | Ashley A. Witt | Diana Oh
Published

2010
Journal

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

78:2
Author's primary institution

Boston University
Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder.

Method:

Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed.

Results:

Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n = 578). There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.59, 95% CI = −0.12 to −1.06). Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.73, 95% CI = −0.09 to −1.36), but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.55, 95% CI = 0.09 to −1.18), for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g = −1.03, 95% CI = −0.40 to −1.66), but not where there was an active control (Hedges g = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.54 to −0.48) and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g = −0.39, 95% CI = −0.15 to −0.63) but not for MBSR (Hedges g = −0.75, 95% CI = 0.31 to −1.81).

Conclusions:

This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.
Citations

5
Authors

Clara Strauss | Kate Cavangh | Annie Oliver | Danelle Pettman
Published

2014
Journal

PLOS ONE
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Famler, United Kingdom
Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Abstract:

Yoga has often been perceived as a method of stress management tool that can assist in alleviating depression and anxiety disorders. This study sought to evaluate the influence of yoga in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety in women who were referred to a yoga clinic.

Methods:

The study involved a convenience sample of women who were referred to a yoga clinic from July 2006 to July 2007.All new cases were evaluated on admission using a personal information questionnaire well as Beck and Spielberger tests. Participants were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group (n = 34) participated in twice weekly yoga classes of 90 min duration for two months. The control group (n = 31) was assigned to a waiting list and did not receive yoga. Both groups were evaluated again after the two-month study period. Results:

The average prevalence of depression in the experimental group pre and post Yoga intervention was 12.82 ± 7.9 and 10.79 ± 6.04 respectively, a statistically insignificant decrease (p = 0.13). However, when the experimental group was compared to the control group, women who participated in yoga classes showed a significant decrease in state anxiety (p = 0.03) and trait anxiety (p < 0.001). Conclusions:

Participation in a two-month yoga class can lead to significant reduction in perceived levels of anxiety in women who suffer from anxiety disorders. This study suggests that yoga can be considered as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Citations

141
Authors

M. Javnbakht | R. Hejazi Kenari | M. Ghasemi
Published

2009
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Volume / Issue

15:2
Author's primary institution

Psychiatry Department of Islamic Azad University, Mashdad, Iran
Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing.

Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise.

Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.
Citations

53
Authors

SA Saeed | D J Antonacci | R M Bloch
Published

2010
Journal

American Family Physician
Volume / Issue

81:8
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatric Medicine, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 
Yoga in the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders: A review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Patient use of complementary and alternative treatments, including yoga, to manage mood and anxiety disorders, has been well documented. Despite research interest, there are few recent reviews of the evidence of the benefit of yoga in these conditions.

Method:

The PubMed, Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched for literature published up to July 2008, relating to yoga and depressive and anxiety disorders.

Results:

The paucity of reported studies and several methodological constraints limit data interpretation. In depressive disorders, yoga may be comparable to medication and the combination superior to medication alone. There is reasonable evidence for its use as second-line monotherapy or augmentation to medication in mild to moderate major depression and dysthymia, with early evidence of benefit in more severe depression. In anxiety disorders, yoga may be superior to medication for a subgroup of patients, but its benefits in specific conditions are still largely unknown. Second-line monotherapy is indicated in performance or test anxiety, but only preliminary evidence exists for obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Yoga appears to be superior to no treatment and progressive relaxation for both depression and anxiety, and may benefit mood and anxiety symptoms associated with medical illness. It shows good safety and tolerability in short-term treatment.

Conclusion:

Reasonable evidence supports the benefit of yoga in specific depressive disorders. The evidence is still preliminary in anxiety disorders. Given its patient appeal and the promising findings thus far, further research on yoga in these conditions is encouraged.
Citations

40
Authors

Tricia L. da Silva | Lakshmi N Ravindran | Arun V. Ravindran
Published

2009
Journal

Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

2:1
Author's primary institution

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., Toronto, Ont., Canada M5T 1R8
Sudarshan kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II-clinical applications and guidelines
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Part I of this series presented a neurophysiologic theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). Part II will review clinical studies, our own clinical observations, and guidelines for the safe and effective use of yoga breath techniques in a wide range of clinical conditions.

Although more clinical studies are needed to document the benefits of programs that combine pranayama (yogic breathing) asanas (yoga postures), and meditation, there is sufficient evidence to consider Sudarshan Kriya Yoga to be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. SKY has been used as a public health intervention to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters.

Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance. Proper training by a skilled teacher and a 30-minute practice every day will maximize the benefits. Health care providers play a crucial role in encouraging patients to maintain their yoga practices.
Citations

260
Authors

Richard P. Brown | Patricia L. Gerbarg
Published

2005
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

11:4
Author's primary institution

Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY
Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is restored.

It is hypothesized that stress induces (1) imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, (2) underactivity of the gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter system, and (3) increased allostatic load. It is further hypothesized that yoga-based practices (4) correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and (5) reduce allostatic load. Depression, epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain exemplify medical conditions that are exacerbated by stress, have low heart rate variability (HRV) and low GABAergic activity, respond to pharmacologic agents that increase activity of the GABA system, and show symptom improvement in response to yoga-based interventions.

The observation that treatment resistant cases of epilepsy and depression respond to vagal nerve stimulation corroborates the need to correct PNS underactivity as part of a successful treatment plan in some cases. According to the proposed theory, the decreased PNS and GABAergic activity that underlies stress-related disorders can be corrected by yoga practices resulting in amelioration of disease symptoms. This has far-reaching implications for the integration of yoga-based practices in the treatment of a broad array of disorders exacerbated by stress.
Citations

84
Authors

C. C. Streeter | P.L. Gerbarg
Published

2012
Journal

Medical Hypotheses
Volume / Issue

78:5
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, US
Effects of a yoga breath intervention alone and in combination with an exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

This study evaluated the effect of a yoga breath program alone and followed by a trauma reduction exposure technique on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami.

Method:

In this non-randomized study, 183 tsunami survivors who scored 50 or above on the Post-traumatic Checklist-17 (PCL-17) were assigned by camps to one of three groups: yoga breath intervention, yoga breath intervention followed by 3–8 h of trauma reduction exposure technique or 6-week wait list. Measures for post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-17) and depression (BDI-21) were performed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using anova and mixed effects regression.

Results:

The effect of treatment vs. control was significant at 6 weeks (F2,178 = 279.616, P < 0.001): mean PCL-17 declined by 42.5 ± 10.0 SD with yoga breath, 39.2 ± 17.2 with Yoga breath + exposure and 4.6 ± 13.2 in the control.

Conclusion:

Yoga breath-based interventions may help relieve psychological distress following mass disasters.
Citations

58
Authors

T. Descilo | A. Vedamurtachar | P.L. Gerbarg | D. Nagaraja | B. N. Gangadhar | B. Damodaran | B. Adelson | L.H. Braslow | S. Marcus | R.P Brown
Published

2010
Journal

Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia
Volume / Issue

121:4
Author's primary institution

National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences of India, Bangalore, India
Association of participation in a mindfulness program with measures of PTSD, depression and quality of life in a veteran sample
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives:

To assess outcomes of veterans who participated in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

Design:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, functional status, behavioral activation, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness were assessed at baseline, and 2 and 6 months after enrollment.

Results:

At 6 months, there were significant improvements in PTSD symptoms (standardized effect size, d = -0.64, p< 0.001); depression (d = -0.70, p<0.001); behavioral activation (d = 0.62, p<0.001); mental component summary score of the Short Form-8 (d = 0.72, p<0.001); acceptance (d = 0.67, p<0.001); and mindfulness (d = 0.78, p<0.001), and 47.7% of veterans had clinically significant improvements in PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions:

MBSR shows promise as an intervention for PTSD and warrants further study in randomized controlled trials.
Citations

56
Authors

David J. Kearney | Kelly McDermott | Carol Malte | Michelle Martinez | Tracy L. Simpson
Published

2011
Journal

Journal of Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

68:1
Author's primary institution

VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA
Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

This study evaluated mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), a group intervention designed to train recovered recurrently depressed patients to disengage from dysphoria-activated depressogenic thinking that may mediate relapse/recurrence.

Recovered recurrently depressed patients (n = 145) were randomized to continue with treatment as usual or, in addition, to receive MBCT. Relapse/recurrence to major depression was assessed over a 60-week study period.

For patients with 3 or more previous episodes of depression (77% of the sample), MBCT significantly reduced risk of relapse/recurrence. For patients with only 2 previous episodes, MBCT did not reduce relapse/recurrence.

MBCT offers a promising cost-efficient psychological approach to preventing relapse/recurrence in recovered recurrently depressed patients.
Citations

2069
Authors

John D Teasdale | Zindel V Segal | Mark J Williams | Valerie A Ridgeway | Judith M Soulsby | Mark A Lau
Published

2000
Journal

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

68:4
Author's primary institution

John D. Teasdale and Valerie A. Ridgeway, Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Zindel V. Segal, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Clarke Division, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Departments of Psychol
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Replication and Exploration of Differential Relapse Prevention Effects.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Recovered recurrently depressed patients were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT).

Replicating previous findings, MBCT reduced relapse from 78% to 36% in 55 patients with 3 or more previous episodes; but in 18 patients with only 2 (recent) episodes corresponding figures were 20% and 50%. MBCT was most effective in preventing relapses not preceded by life events. Relapses were more often associated with significant life events in the 2-episode group. This group also reported less childhood adversity and later first depression onset than the 3-or-more-episode group, suggesting that these groups represented distinct populations.

MBCT is an effective and efficient way to prevent relapse/recurrence in recovered depressed patients with 3 or more previous episodes.
Citations

1053
Authors

S. Helen Ma | John D. Teasdale
Published

2004
Journal

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

72:1
Author's primary institution

Medical Research Council, Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Yoga for depression: The research evidence
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Methods:

Searches of the major biomedical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were conducted. Specialist complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the IndMED databases were also searched and efforts made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Searches were conducted between January and June 2004. Relevant research was categorised by study type and appraised. Clinical commentaries were obtained for studies reporting clinical outcomes.

Results:

Five randomised controlled trials were located, each of which utilised different forms of yoga interventions and in which the severity of the condition ranged from mild to severe. All trials reported positive findings but methodological details such as method of randomisation, compliance and attrition rates were missing. No adverse effects were reported with the exception of fatigue and breathlessness in participants in one study.

Limitations:

No language restrictions were imposed on the searches conducted but no searches of databases in languages other than English were included.

Conclusions:

Overall, the initial indications are of potentially beneficial effects of yoga interventions on depressive disorders. Variation in interventions, severity and reporting of trial methodology suggests that the findings must be interpreted with caution. Several of the interventions may not be feasible in those with reduced or impaired mobility. Nevertheless, further investigation of yoga as a therapeutic intervention is warranted.
Citations

303
Authors

Karen Pilkington | Graham Kirkwood | Hagen Rampes | Janet Richardson
Published

2005
Journal

Journal of Affective Disorders
Volume / Issue

89:3
Author's primary institution

Research Council for Complementary Medicine, London, UK
A YOGA INTERVENTION FOR YOUNG ADULTS WITH ELEVATED SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Context:

Yoga teachers and students often report that yoga has an uplifting effect on their moods, but scientific research on yoga and depression is limited.

Objective:

To examine the effects of a short-term Iyengar yoga course on mood in mildly depressed young adults.

Design:

Young adults pre-screened for mild levels of depression were randomly assigned to a yoga course or wait-list control group.

Setting:

College campus recreation center.

Participants:

Twenty-eight volunteers ages 18 to 29. At intake, all participants were experiencing mild levels of depression, but had received no current psychiatric diagnoses or treatments. None had significant yoga experience.

Intervention:

Subjects in the yoga group attended two 1–hour Iyengar yoga classes each week for 5 consecutive weeks. The classes emphasized yoga postures thought to alleviate depression, particularly back bends, standing poses, and inversions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Beck Depression Inventory, StateTraitAnxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, morning cortisol levels.

Results: Subjects who participated in the yoga course demonstrated significant decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and trait anxiety. These effects emerged by the middle of the yoga course and were maintained by the end. Changes also were observed in acute mood, with subjects reporting decreased levels of negative mood and fatigue following yoga classes. Finally, there was a trend for higher morning cortisol levels in the yoga group by the end of the yoga course, compared to controls.

These findings provide suggestive evidence of the utility of yoga asanas in improving mood and support the need for future studies with larger samples and more complex study designs to more fully evaluate the effects of yoga on mood disturbances.
Citations

279
Authors

Alison Woolery | Hector Myers | Beth Sternlieb | Lonnie Zeltzer
Published

2004
Journal

Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Volume / Issue

10:2
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles
Yoga as a Complementary Treatment of Depression: Effects of Traits and Moods on Treatment Outcome
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome.

Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-intervention assessment data. The intervention consisted of 20 classes led by senior Iyengar yoga teachers, in three courses of 20 yoga classes each. All participants were diagnosed with unipolar major depression in partial remission. Psychological and biological characteristics were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and participants rated their mood states before and after each class.

Significant reductions were shown for depression, anger, anxiety, neurotic symptoms and low frequency heart rate variability in the 17 completers. Eleven out of these completers achieved remission levels post-intervention. Participants who remitted differed from the non-remitters at intake on several traits and on physiological measures indicative of a greater capacity for emotional regulation. Moods improved from before to after the yoga classes.

Yoga appears to be a promising intervention for depression; it is cost-effective and easy to implement. It produces many beneficial emotional, psychological and biological effects, as supported by observations in this study. The physiological methods are especially useful as they provide objective markers of the processes and effectiveness of treatment. These observations may help guide further clinical application of yoga in depression and other mental health disorders, and future research on the processes and mechanisms
Citations

149
Authors

David Shapiro | Ian A. Cook | Dmitry M. Davydov | Cristina Ottaviani | Andrew F. Leuchter | Michelle Abrams
Published

2007
Journal

Evidenced based complementary and alternative medicine
Volume / Issue

4:4
Author's primary institution

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and ayurveda on older adults in a residential home.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The effects of yoga and ayurveda on geriatric depression were evaluated in 69 persons older than 60 who were living in a residential home.

Participants were stratified by age and gender and randomly allocated to three groups: Yoga, Ayurveda, or Wait-list Control. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms prior to the intervention, and after 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. Participation in one of the three groups lasted 24 weeks. The yoga program (7 hours 30 minutes per week) included physical postures, relaxation techniques, regulated breathing, devotional songs, and lectures. The Ayurveda Group received an herbal preparation twice daily for the whole period.

The depression symptom scores of the Yoga Group at both 3 and 6 months decreased significantly, from a group average baseline of 10.6 to 8.1 and 6.7, respectively (p <.001, paired t-test). The other groups showed no change.

Hence, an integrated approach of yoga including the mental and philosophical aspects in addition to the physical practices was useful for institutionalized older persons.
Citations

86
Authors

Krishnamurthy MN | Telles S
Published

2007
Journal

Journal of Gerentological Nursing
Volume / Issue

33:2
Author's primary institution

Division of Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga University, Bangalore, India.
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their experiences of intimate partner violence and learn how to use yogic breathing techniques have reduced feelings of depression.

Results indicate that learning yogic breathing techniques alone and combined with giving testimony significantly reduces feelings of depression.

Recasting women as authorities on domestic violence and teaching them how to calm their minds by focusing on yogic breathing may be simple and effective ways to help women take control over their bodies and lives.
Citations

14
Authors

Susan H. Franzblau | Sonia Echevarria | Michelle Smith | Thomas E. Van Cantfort
Published

2008
Journal

Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Fayetteville State University
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse or recurrence. Maintenance antidepressants for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to medication. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce risk of relapse or recurrence compared with usual care, but has not yet been compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in a definitive trial. We aimed to see whether MBCT with support to taper or discontinue antidepressant treatment (MBCT-TS) was superior to maintenance antidepressants for prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence over 24 months.

Methods:

In this single-blind, parallel, group randomised controlled trial (PREVENT), we recruited adult patients with three or more previous major depressive episodes and on a therapeutic dose of maintenance antidepressants, from primary care general practices in urban and rural settings in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT-TS or maintenance antidepressants (in a 1:1 ratio) with a computer-generated random number sequence with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Participants were aware of treatment allocation and research assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was time to relapse or recurrence of depression, with patients followed up at five separate intervals during the 24-month study period. The primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN26666654.

Findings:

Between March 23, 2010, and Oct 21, 2011, we assessed 2188 participants for eligibility and recruited 424 patients from 95 general practices. 212 patients were randomly assigned to MBCT-TS and 212 to maintenance antidepressants. The time to relapse or recurrence of depression did not differ between MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressants over 24 months (hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·67–1·18; p=0·43), nor did the number of serious adverse events. Five adverse events were reported, including two deaths, in each of the MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressants groups. No adverse events were attributable to the interventions or the trial.

Interpretation:

We found no evidence that MBCT-TS is superior to maintenance antidepressant treatment for the prevention of depressive relapse in individuals at risk for depressive relapse or recurrence. Both treatments were associated with enduring positive outcomes in terms of relapse or recurrence, residual depressive symptoms, and quality of life.
Citations

0
Authors

Dr Willem Kuyken PhD | Rachel Hayes PhD | Barbara Barrett PhD | Richard Byng PhD | Tim Dalgleish PhD | David Kessler PhD | Glyn Lewis PhD | Edward Watkins PhD | Claire Brejcha BSc
Published

2015
Journal

The Lancet
Volume / Issue

N/A
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford
Establishing key components of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety, and improving well-being: a Delphi method study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

Previous research suggests benefits of yoga in reducing depression and anxiety. However, common concerns in reviews of the research include lack of detail, rationale and consistency of approach of interventions used. Issues related to heterogeneity include amount, types and delivery of yoga interventions. This study aims to document consensus-based recommendations for consistency of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety.

Methods

The Delphi method was used to establish consensus from experienced yoga teachers. Thirty-three eligible teachers were invited to participate, from four different countries. Two rounds of an online survey were sent to participants. The first round sought initial views. The second round sought consensus on a summary of those views. Survey questions related to frequency and duration (dosage) of the yoga, approaches and techniques to be included or avoided, and training and experience for yoga teachers.

Results

Twenty-four teachers agreed to participate. Eighteen completed the second round (n = 18). General consensus (>75% of participants in agreement) was achieved on parameters of practice (dosage): an average of 30 to 40 minutes, to be done 5 times per week, over a period of 6 weeks. Numerous recommendations for yoga techniques to include or avoid were collected in the first round. The second round produced a consensus statement on those recommendations. Breath regulation and postures were considered very important or essential for people with depression; and relaxation, breath regulation and meditation being very important or essential for people with anxiety. Other recommended components also achieved consensus. There was also general consensus that it is very important or essential for teachers to have a minimum of 500 training hours over 2 years, at least 2 years teaching experience, training in developing personalised yoga practices, training in yoga for mental health, and professional supervision or mentoring.

Conclusions

The Delphi process has achieved a consensus statement on the application of yoga for reducing anxiety and depression. This consensus provides a checklist for identification of commonalities and evaluation of past research. Future research can proceed to develop and evaluate consensus-based yoga intervention protocols for the reduction of anxiety and depression, and improvements in well-being.
Citations

0
Authors

Michae de Manincor | Aland Bensoussan | Caroline Smith | Paul Fahey | Suzanne Bourchier
Published

2015
Journal

BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Volume / Issue

15:85
Author's primary institution

University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag, Penrith, NSW, Australia
Yoga for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

Mind–body medical interventions are commonly used to cope with depression and yoga is one of the most commonly used mind–body interventions. The aim of this review was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effectiveness of yoga for depression.

Methods

Medline/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and IndMED were searched through January 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga for patients with depressive disorders and individuals with elevated levels of depression were included. Main outcomes were severity of depression and remission rates, secondary outcomes were anxiety, quality of life, and safety.

Results

Twelve RCTs with 619 participants were included. Three RCTs had low risk of bias. Regarding severity of depression, there was moderate evidence for short-term effects of yoga compared to usual care (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.99, −0.39; P < .001), and limited evidence compared to relaxation (SMD = −0.62; 95%CI −1.03, −0.22; P = .003), and aerobic exercise (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI −0.99, −0.18; P = .004). Limited evidence was found for short-term effects of yoga on anxiety compared to relaxation (SMD = −0.79; 95% CI −1.3, −0.26; P = .004). Subgroup analyses revealed evidence for effects in patients with depressive disorders and in individuals with elevated levels of depression. Due to the paucity and heterogeneity of the RCTs, no meta-analyses on long-term effects were possible. No RCT reported safety data.

Conclusions

Despite methodological drawbacks of the included studies, yoga could be considered an ancillary treatment option for patients with depressive disorders and individuals with elevated levels of depression.
Citations

41
Authors

Holger Cramer, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos
Published

2013
Journal

Depression and Anxiety
Volume / Issue

30 : 11
Author's primary institution

Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
Yoga for prenatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

Prenatal depression can negatively affect the physical and mental health of both mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of yoga as an intervention in the management of prenatal depression.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO from all retrieved articles describing such trials up to July 2014.

Results

Six RCTs were identified in the systematic search. The sample consisted of 375 pregnant women, most of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. The diagnoses of depression were determined by their scores on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. When compared with comparison groups (e.g., standard prenatal care, standard antenatal exercises, social support, etc.), the level of depression statistically significantly reduced in yoga groups (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.94 to −0.25; p = 0.0007). One subgroup analysis revealed that both the levels of depressive symptoms in prenatally depressed women (SMD, −0.46; CI, −0.90 to −0.03; p = 0.04) and non-depressed women (SMD, −0.87; CI, −1.22 to −0.52; p < 0.00001) were statistically significantly lower in yoga group than that in control group. There were two kinds of yoga: the physical-exercise-based yoga and integrated yoga, which, besides physical exercises, included pranayama, meditation or deep relaxation. Therefore, the other subgroup analysis was conducted to estimate effects of the two kinds of yoga on prenatal depression. The results showed that the level of depression was significantly decreased in the integrated yoga group (SMD, −0.79; CI, −1.07 to −0.51; p < 0.00001) but not significantly reduced in physical-exercise-based yoga group (SMD, −0.41; CI, −1.01 to −0.18; p = 0.17).

Conclusions

Prenatal yoga intervention in pregnant women may be effective in partly reducing depressive symptoms.
Citations

1
Authors

Hong Gong, Chenxu Ni, Xiaoliang Shen, Tengyum Wu, Chlunlei Jiang
Published

2015
Journal

BMC Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

15 : 14
Author's primary institution

Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control: a randomised trial for treating depression
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether tango dancing is as effective as mindfulness meditation in reducing symptoms of psychological stress, anxiety and depression, and in promoting well-being.

Design

This study employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression analysis.

Participants

Ninety-seven people with self-declared depression were randomised into tango dance or mindfulness meditation classes, or to control/waiting-list.

Setting

Classes were conducted in a venue suitable for both activities in the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia.

Interventions

Participants completed six-week programmes (1½ h/week of tango or meditation). The outcome measures were assessed at pre-test and post-test.

Main outcome measures

Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; The Self Esteem Scale; Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

Results

Sixty-six participants completed the program and were included in the statistical analysis. Depression levels were significantly reduced in the tango (effect size d = 0.50, p = .010), and meditation groups (effect size d = 0.54, p = .025), relative to waiting-list controls. Stress levels were significantly reduced only in the tango group (effect size d = 0.45, p = .022). Attending tango classes was a significant predictor for the increased levels of mindfulness R2 = .10, adjusted R2 = .07, F (2,59) = 3.42, p = .039.

Conclusion

Mindfulness-meditation and tango dance could be effective complementary adjuncts for the treatment of depression and/or inclusion in stress management programmes. Subsequent trials are called to explore the therapeutic mechanisms involved.
Citations

24
Authors

Rosa Pinniger, Rhonda F. Brown, Einar B. Thorsteinsson, Patricia McKinley
Published

2012
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Volume / Issue

20 : 6
Author's primary institution

University of New England, Australia
Effectiveness of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for major psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

To examine the efficacy of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Data Sources:

Eligible trials were identified by a literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Control Trials Register, Google Scholar, and EBSCO on the basis of criteria of acceptable quality and relevance. The search was performed using the following terms: yoga for schizophrenia, yoga for depression, yoga for anxiety, yoga for PTSD, yoga therapy, yoga for psychiatric disorders, complementary treatment, and efficacy of yoga therapy. Trials both unpublished and published with no limitation placed on year of publication were included; however, the oldest article included in the final meta-analysis was published in 2000.

Study Selection:

All available randomized, controlled trials of yoga for the treatment of mental illness were reviewed, and 10 studies were eligible for inclusion. As very few randomized, controlled studies have examined yoga for mental illness, this meta-analysis includes studies with participants who were diagnosed with mental illness, as well as studies with participants who were not diagnosed with mental illness but reported symptoms of mental illness. Trials were excluded due to the following: (1) insufficient information, (2) inadequate statistical analysis, (3) yoga was not the central component of the intervention, (4) subjects were not diagnosed with or did not report experiencing symptoms of one of the psychiatric disorders of interest (ie, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and PTSD), (5) study was not reported in English, and (6) study did not include a control group.

Data Extraction:

Data were extracted on participant diagnosis, inclusion criteria, treatment and control groups, duration of intervention, and results (pre-post mean and standard deviations, t values, and f values). Number, age, and sex ratio of participants were also obtained when available.

Data Synthesis:

The combined analysis of all 10 studies provided a pooled effect size of −3.25 (95% CI, −5.36 to −1.14; P = .002), indicating that yoga-based interventions have a statistically significant effect as an adjunct treatment for major psychiatric disorders. Findings in support of alternative and complementary interventions may especially be an aid in the treatment of disorders for which current treatments are found to be inadequate or to carry severe liabilities.

Conclusions:

As current psychopharmacologic interventions for severe mental illness are associated with increased risk of weight gain as well as other metabolic side effects that increase patients’ risk for cardiovascular disease, yoga may be an effective, far less toxic adjunct treatment option for severe mental illness.
Citations

29
Authors

Patricia Cabral, Hilary B. Meyer, Donna Ames
Published

2011
Journal

The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders
Volume / Issue

13 : 4
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, California State University, Nothridge

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